SUBALBUM:  Margaret of Parma

This is the first appearance, but not the last, for a Duchess of Parma on this site. 

According to her Wikipedia article, Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence and a Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by marriage to Ottavio Farnese. She was appointed Governor of the Netherlands, but without authority. The excesses of the Inquisition led to a revolt and she was unable to respond to it effectively. She had to leave The Netherlands - twice.

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